SRI CONCEPTS AND METHODS APPLIED TO OTHER CROPS
- NEW: SRI-Rice. 2014. SCI - The System of Crop Intensification: Agroecological innovations for improving agricultural production, food security, and resilience to climate change. SRI International Network and Resources Center (SRI-Rice), Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. (72p., 5.18MB pdf)
- SCI VIDEOS: Over 30 videos on the System of Crop Intensification are available on the SRICornell channel on YouTube. (SRI principles adapted to wheat, sugarcane, finger millet and other crops)
- Daisy, M., N. Thavaprakaash, K. Velayudham, and V. Divya. 2013. Effect of System of Crop Intensification (SCI) practices on growth, yield attributes and yield of castor hybrid YRCH. International Journal of Advanced Life Sciences. 6(4): 366-374.
- Watershed Organisation Trust (WOTR). 2013. A step towards climate resilient agriculture. Watershed Organisation Trust website.
- Van Vark, Caspar. 2013. Do crop intensification techniques hold the key to food security? The Guardian Global Development Professionals Network blog. [Indian farmers have seen increased yields in rice and wheat cultivation. Could SCI curb hunger in low-resource communities?]
- McDonald, K. 2013. An Interview with Cornell's Dr. Erika Styger about the System of Crop Intensification (SRI-Rice). Big Picture Agriculture website. July 22.
- Loganandhan, N., B. Gujja, V. V. Goud, and U. S. Natarajan. 2012. Sustainable Sugarcane Initiative (SSI): a methodology of "more with less." Sugar Tech (pp.1-5, early print). doi:10.1007/s12355-012-0180-y
- Uphoff, Norman. 2012. Raising smallholder food crop yields with climate-smart agroecological practices. System of Rice Intensification website. (24p., 2.28MB pdf) [Booklet supplementing presentation by Norman Uphoff on "The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) and Beyond: Coping with Climate Change," World Bank, October 10, 2012]
- PRADAN. 2012. Cultivating rapeseed/mustard with SRI principles: A manual. System of Rice Intensification website. (24p., 696KB pdf) [This manual is based on experiences by PRADAN and Agricultural Technology Management Agency (ATMA) that began with farmers in Gaya district, Bihar.]
- PRADAN. 2012. Cultivating wheat with SRI principles: A manual. System of Rice Intensification website. (20p., 4.76MB pdf) [This manual resulted from the Bihar Rural Livelihood Promotion Society (BRLPS), the Agricultural Technology Management Agency (ATMA), and the NGO PRADAN, Nalanda branch who worked together on SWI in the Gaya and Nelanda districts of Bihar.] A 2011 Hindi version is also available as a PowerPoint.
- PRADAN. 2012. Cultivating finger millet with SRI principles: A training manual. System of Rice Intensification website. (20p., 2.16MB pdf) [Based on the experiences of farmers affiliated with the PRADAN rural development program in Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand States and with the SRI Consortium, Chhattisgarh, India. Print copies produced by Sir Dorbji Tata Trust and PRADAN]
- Khadka, Ram Bahadur, and Prashanta Raut. 2011. System of Wheat Intensification (SWI): A new concept on low input technology for increasing wheat yield in marginal land. System of Rice Intensification website. (11p., 246KB pdf) [Report on a SWI project in Far Western Nepal by European Union Food Facility Project, Forum for Awareness and Youth Activity Nepal and Safety Nets Supporting Agricultural Productivity (SNAP) Mercy Corps Nepal]
- Baskaran, P. 2012. STI -- Sustainable Turmeric Initiative: An Innovative Method for Cultivation of Turmeric (Curcuma longa). System of Rice Intensification website. (8p., 321 KB pdf) [General information and instruction for STI, an adaptation of SRI methods for turmeric developed in Thumbal, Tamil Nadu.]
- Dash, Tushar Kanta and Ashutosh Pal. 2011. Growing Crops with SRI Principles. SDTT-SRI website (42p., 26MB pdf) [The booklet, published by the Livolink Foundation's SRI Secretariat in Bubaneshwar, Orissa, contains information on applying SRI principles to wheat, finger millet, mustard and several vegetables.]
- Erulan, Sathiyavani, Velayudham Kumaran and Thavaprakaash Nallasamy. 2012. System of Crop Intensification in Greengram: An Innovative Approach. [SRI practices are being extrapolated to greengram, called System of Crop Intensification (SCI), a term used when applied to other other crops than rice. Available from More Books Publishing (92p., 49€)].
- Gujja, Biksham et al. 2012. Farmers from the field - SSI - More with less. AgSRI website. March. (60p., pdf) [Published AgSRI with assistance from NRMC (NABARD), this Sustainable Sugarcane Initiative publication was compiled with inputs/experiences of thousands of SSI farmers from different states of India]
- Gujja, Biksham, Vinod Goud, U.S. Natarajan, T.V.V.V. Rao, Suhasini Ramayanam and Sraban Dalai. 2012. Sustainable Sugarcane Initiative. AgSRI website.(7p., pdf) [Manual for Sustainable Sugarcane Initiative (SSI) methods compiled by the AgSRI Group. For the complete 48 p. manual contact AgSRI]
2011 SCI EVENTS: A National Colloquium on the System of Crop Intensification (SCI), organized by the Bihar Rural Livelihoods Promotion Society (BRLPS), was held in Patna, Bihar State, on March 1, 2011. Subsequently, a September 7, 2011, workshop on Upscaling System of Crop Intensification (SCI) for Achieving Food Security in the farms of Uttarakhand and Bundelkhand was held in Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India. The state-level workshop was organized by the People's Science Institute, which has been one of the pioneers in the "spill over effect" of SRI into other crops like wheat, vegetables, maize, finger millets, soybeans and kidney beans.
Farmers and professionals working with SRI concepts and methods in a number of countries have begun to extend the ideas and insights gained from SRI experience to a variety of other crops. Sometimes they use terms like System of Wheat Intensification (SWI) or System of Teff Intensification (STI or Sustainable Sugarcane Initiative (SSI), but these all belong to what is a kind of emerging ‘SRI family’ of practices. Learn more these emerging practices in the SRI-Rice monograph SCI - The System of Crop Intensification: Agroecological innovations for improving agricultural production, food security, and resilience to climate change.
Because this development has been very spontaneous and widely dispersed, the information on practices is not always complete and results are not reported in standardized formats. This makes them more suggestive than conclusive. By now, there is enough evidence, however, coming in from various sources and on many different crops, so that a special section is being added to the SRI website to facilitate access to these innovations and to encourage more experimentation and evaluation.
A general term – System of Crop Intensification (SCI) – has emerged to apply to this next generation of agroecological innovation. The term usually refers to upland/unirrigated crop production, where the principles and methods from SRI are adapted and utilized to raise the productivity of land, labor, water and nutrients when cultivating other crops. Like SRI, SCI emphasizes growing bigger, healthier root systems, and enhancement of soil fertility through promotion of soil biota (the life in the soil).
An example of the phenotypic differences with SCI methods can be seen in the representative finger millet (ragi) plants grown by farmers in Jharkhand state of India with advice from staff of the NGO known as PRADAN.
- On right › a local-variety ragi plant grown with conventional methods
- In center › an improved-variety plant (A404) grown with conventional methods
- On left › a ragi plant of the same improved variety grown with what PRADAN staff have labeled ‘SFMI’ methods (System of Finger Millet Intensification).
This picture shows how much effect can be achieved with finger millet by changing farmers’ management practices. With this crop, such changes can have more effects than making genetic improvements. (Click on photo to enlarge)
We are interested in the results from specific practices rather than in terminology, so we use here the terms that colleagues are using, establishing pages for the respective crops. We hope that reports on experiences of using SRI concepts and methods with these and any other crops -- whether positive, negative or inconclusive – will be reported for posting. We would like this body of knowledge and adapted practices to be quickly built up for the benefit of farmers and consumers and the environment around the world.
The conclusion, based on information received from colleagues around the world
thus far, is not that farmers everywhere should go out and entirely change their
practices for these different crops. Rather, the information posted here should
encourage farmers and researchers alike to begin experimenting with new sets of
practices, prompting them to rethinking current management systems on the basis of
SRI (and now SCI) experience. There may be significant unexploited productive
potentials in many crops. These potentials appear to be available at little or no
cost, even possibly with some cost savings.
- Wheat › System of
Wheat Intensification (SWI) – in India, Mali and Ethiopia
- Sugarcane ›
Sustainable Sugarcane Initiative (SSI) – in India
- Finger Millet ›
another SRI -- System of Ragi Intensification – in India
- Teff › System of Teff
Intensification (STI) -- in Ethiopia
- Other Crops ›
sometimes referred to under the heading System of Crop
Intensification (SCI), including the above crops and also: